STAGE FOUR AND FIVE SCIENCE

REVISION SHEET


For this exam you need to revise all four years of your Science courses ie from Year 7 to the end of Year 10.  To help you in this here is a revision sheet which is based on the entire Stages 4 and 5 Science syllabus.  If you know something about everything on this sheet you should be OK in your School Certificate.

Good luck

CONTENT:

PHYSICS:

Be aware of the Law of Conservation of energy - energy cannot be created or destroyed, identify situations where different forms of energy are evident eg moving objects - kinetic energy, position - potential energy, electrical energy, sound (needs a medium), light (does not need a medium) and heat energies and the way they can be transformed into each other.  Identify machines used to perform energy transformations eg turbines turn kinetic energy into electrical energy, electric motors turn electrical energy into kinetic energy, bar heaters turn electrical energy into heat energy as do stoves. 

Heat can be transferred by conduction eg a metal spoon in a pot of boiling water gets hot up the handle, convection eg we heat water at the bottom but the top also gets hot and radiation eg light from the sun reaches us even though it is about 150 000 000 km away.

Electrical energy - energy is associated with electricity in a circuit, construct and draw simple electrical circuits to show flow of electricity hence energy

Friction is a contact force which always opposes motion.  Identify where friction acts in everyday life eg cars, road surfaces, in motors, hands being rubbed etc

Describe ways in which objects get an electrostatic charge - rubbing or induction.  Identify situations where effects of electrostatic forces can be observed eg shocks from carpets and cars, lightning etc

Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other.

Like poles (North and north or south and south) of magnets repel each other and unlike poles (north

and south) attract each other.

Identify where magnets and electromagnets are used - electric motors, electricity generators, some switches, scrap metal lifters at car yards

Know that ALL objects exert a force of gravity (attraction) on all other objects in the Universe and the strength of this force depends on the mass of the object and the distance it is away from the object it is ‘pulling’ on.

Distinguish between mass (amount of matter measured in kg and unchanging) and weight (measured in Newtons and depends on gravity i.e can change and we would have less weight on the moon) - W = mg

Identify waves as carriers of energy

Describe features of waves eg frequency (f), wavelength () and speed

Give eg's of different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum eg visible light, radio waves, TV, X-rays, gamma rays.  Give some uses eg medical, communication, seeing

Describe F = m x a (Force = mass x acceleration) measured in Newtons (N)

Speed = Distance  time or distance = speed x time and time = distance  speed

Acceleration = rate of change in speed (velocity) –   v - u and or direction as a result of a net force

                t

Analyse qualitatively some situations using Newtons Laws of motion

Design, construct and draw simple circuits containing a number of components

Describe voltage, resistance and current using analogies eg water flow for current, water pressure for voltage and drag of the hosepipe on the water as resistance.

Describe qualitatively Volts (V) = Amps (I) x Resistance (R) plus other two arrangements of this.

Know the differences between the characteristics and applications of series and parallel circuits

Distinguish between absorption, reflection (mirrors and) and refraction or bending (lenses, glass blocks) of light and where they occur

CHEMISTRY:

Identify that energy and particles may be released from the nuclei of atoms eg electrons and protons and nuclear explosions

Nature of matter – made up of particles which are constantly moving and interacting

Explain expansion and contraction in terms of particle movement based on energy changes

Relate properties of solids, liquids and gases to the particle model of matter and changes of state in terms of motion of particles related to energy levels

Describe physical changes which occur during evaporation, condensation, boiling, melting, freezing - relate these to energy transfers

Explain density in terms of the particle model

Explain changes in gas pressure in terms of changes in number of gas particle collisions

Classify elements as metals or non-metals

Know the symbols for the first 20 elements plus some other common ones eg gold Au, copper Cu, lead Pb, silver Ag,

Identify some common mixtures eg salt water,

Know that water is very important as a solvent (it dissolves things) eg of oxygen, electrolytes like salt and waste gases in the body like CO2

Describe aqueous (water) solutions in terms of solute - the stuff being dissolved eg salt, solvent - the stuff doing the dissolving which is water and solution which is the final product of salty water

Identify when the processes of filtration, sedimentation, sieving, distillation, chromatography, evaporation, condensation and crystallisation can be used to separate mixtures

Know difference between elements - substances which contain one kind of atom only eg Oxygen, Hydrogen etc, and compounds - substances which consist of molecules which contain 2 or more different elements combined together chemically eg HNO3

Identify chemical change by looking for: colour change, gas production, precipitate formation, appearance or disappearance of a substance, heat production

Distinguish between compounds - not easily separated and mixtures - two or more substances which are easily separated

Structure of atom - features and location of protons, neutrons (found in the nucleus) and electrons flying around the nucleus

Distinguish between elements using information about numbers of protons, neutrons an electrons

Describe an appropriate atomic model

Identify the atom as the smallest unit of an element and a molecule as consisting of two or more atoms combined together chemically.  These atoms may be the same or different.

Use the Periodic Table to describe some relationships eg metals, non-metals

Identify that a different compound is formed when atoms are rearranged in a chemical reaction, not that matter is created

Classify compounds into groups based on common chemical characteristics eg acids (give the H+ ion), bases (give the OH- ion), carbonates (give the CO32- ion), sulphates (give the SO42- ion)

Construct word equations and written descriptions of a range of chemical reactions eg

acid + base  salt + water

Use the names and formulae of a range of common compounds eg water H2O, copper sulphate CuSO4, hydrochloric acid HCl

Describe reactants - things that react to form products in:

Combustion (burning and combining with oxygen) eg C + O2  CO2

Corrosion - combining with oxygen eg rusting 3Fe + 2O2  Fe3O4

Precipitation - solid product forming eg Pb2+(aq)+ 2I--(aq)  PbI2 solid

Acids on metals - always produce hydrogen gas eg 2HCl + Mg  MgCl2 + H2

Acids on carbonates always release Carbon dioxide eg HCl + CaCO3  CaCl2 + H2O + CO

Neutralisation - acid + base  salt + water eg HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H2O

Decomposition - breaking a compound own into something else by heating eg

CaCO3  CaO + CO2

Describe the role of indicators which change colour depending on whether a solution is acid or base eg phenolpthalien which is colourless in acids and red in bases

BIOLOGY:

Identify that living things are made of cells

Describe the functions of the nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplast

Identify that substances move into and out of cells

Distinguish between unicellular (one-celled) and multicellular (many-celled) organisms

Classify living things according to features, patterns and similarities

Identify a range of simple plants and animals using simple keys

Identify that micro-organisms (very small living things) can be helpful and harmful

Cell division is used for reproduction and in unicellular organisms

There is a wide range of multicellular organisms

Identify that all tissues, organs and organ systems consist of different cells

Explain why multicellular organisms require specialised organs and systems

Identify what is needed for the processes of respiration and photosynthesis

Describe role of roots, stems, leaves in flowering plants

Describe role of digestive, circulatory, excretory, skeletal and respiratory systems in keeping humans functioning.

Explain that systems serve the needs of cells

Identify role of cell division in growth, repair and reproduction

Explain advantages of DNA replicating exactly

Explain advantages and disadvantages of DNA mutations

Identify that information is transferred as DNA on chromosomes when cells reproduce themselves

Identify that genes are part of DNA

Identify role of genes and the environment in shaping organisms

Discuss evidence for evolution of present day organisms from those that lived ages ago

Relate natural selection to evolution

Describe co-ordinating role of various systems in humans - nervous and endocrinal

Describe bodily responses to infectious and non-infectious diseases

Relate the organs of human reproduction to their functions.

ASTRONOMY AND GEOLOGY:

Describe relative sizes, distances and movements of components of our solar system

Describe relative movements of planets, moon and sun

Explain night and day

Explain seasons in terms of tilt of earth's axis and its revolution around the sun

Describe some major features of the universe eg galaxies, stars, nebulae and solar systems

Use an appropriate scale to model distances between structures in the universe

Describe earth's structure using core, mantle, crust, lithosphere

Identify gases in the earth's atmosphere and difference between it and space

Describe importance of atmospheric gases eg ozone and greenhouse gases to life on earth

Describe the water cycle

Describe effect of forces of the sun and moon on the hydrosphere

Identify that rocks are composed of minerals

Explain breaking down of rocks in terms of physical and chemical changes

Relate formation of landforms to weathering, erosion and deposition

Describe origins of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.

Discuss theories of origin of the universe - big bang theory

Identify that some types of electromagnetic radiation are used to provide information about the               universe eg radio waves

Describe some of the difficulties in obtaining information about the universe - distance, time

Discuss evidence which suggests crustal plates move over time eg Himalayas still growing,

Relate some major features of the universe to theories about the formation of the universe

Describe some changes that are likely to take place during the life of a star eg heating, expansion, exploding, collapse

Identify the role of sediments in understanding geological history - horizontal layers with oldest at the bottom and youngest at top

Describe conditions necessary for fossil formation eg exclusion of oxygen by water etc

Relate fossil record to age of the Earth and the time over which life has been evolving

Relate movements of Earth's plates to convection currents in the mantle and gravitational forces

Explain how interactions at plate boundaries may lead to earthquakes, volcanic activity and new landforms

Explain some impacts of natural events eg cyclones, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes on the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and/or biosphere

ECOSYSTEMS:

Describe some adaptations of living things to factors in their environment eg eucalypts and fire

Describe using Australian food chains and food webs how producers, consumers and decomposers are related eg Plants (producers)  make their own food, animals (consumers) eat plants and decomposers break everything down after death.

Describe the roles of photosynthesis and respiration in ecosystems eg

Respiration:  Glucose + oxygen  Carbon dioxide + water + ENERGY

Photosynthesis is the reverse: carbon dioxide + water + light E  Glucose + oxygen

Discuss some effects of bushfires, drought and flood on Australian ecosystems

Distinguish between biotic (living eg plants and animals) and abiotic (non-living eg water, air, soil) features of the local environment

Describe the importance of cycles of materials in ecosystems eg water, carbon, the respiration - photosynthesis cycle

Describe some impacts of human activities on ecosystems eg pollution, land degradation, deforestation, land clearing etc

ENERGY:

Distinguish between natural and man-made resources eg

Give eg's of resources from living things and those extracted from the air, Earth and oceans eg food crops, oxygen vs minerals, salts

Identify fossil fuels and describe some of their uses eg crude oil  LPG, petrol, distillate etc

Identify renewable and non-renewable sources of energy eg wind, solar vs oil and coal

Discuss the importance of energy as a resource eg power of the oil producing nation

Identify properties that make some natural resources economically important and describe their uses eg energy stored in fossil fuels, mineral wealth

Relate pollution to contamination by unwanted substances eg crude oil in the sea, chemicals on the Barrier Reef

Identify excessive use of fossil fuels as a contributing factor to the greenhouse effect eg increased CO2  and other gas concentrations in the atmosphere

Discuss strategies used to balance human activities and needs in ecosystems with conserving, protecting and maintaining the quality and sustainability of the environment eg controlling numbers of people in national parks, limiting fishing and logging licences etc


TECHNOLOGY:

Identify that technology makes tasks easier or more convenient eg timing, computers,

Identify energy transformations in everyday devices involving electrical (electric motor), sound (loudspeaker) light  (illumination) or heat (cooking)

Describe some everyday uses and effects of emr including applications in communication technologies eg radio, TV, mobile phones

Discuss the benefits and problems associated with medical and industrial uses of nuclear energy eg radiation side effects

Describe some benefits and problems of using technology eg speed and convenience vs pollution, sedentary life style, obesity etc

Describe some ways in which technology has increased the variety of man-made resources

SKILLS: 

This includes drawing diagrams and graphs:

DRAWING DIAGRAMS:  Whenever you draw a diagram you should do so using a sharp pencil (this allows for correction of mistakes),  Straight edges on apparatus MUST be drawn using a ruler.  All parts of the diagram MUST be fully labelled and there should be a heading.  Make it big enough for the marker to be able to see it clearly.

DRAWING GRAPHS:  All graphs should be drawn using a sharp pencil.  The axes MUST be fully labelled and include units.  The SCALE should be chosen by YOU to make the graph as big as possible.  Look for a LINE  OF BEST FIT and NEVER draw a dot-to-dot line or feather it.  You need to know how to EXTRAPOLATE a GRAPH and INTERPOLATE on a GRAPH.

EXTRAPOLATE:  means to extend the graph line using the trend given by the data.  You are then able to draw conclusions about what would have happened if the experiment had run for longer.

INTERPOLATE: means to use the graph line to answer questions based on points on that existing line.

THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD:  You may be asked to briefly describe or even design an experiment and you need to know the headings which you have been given and which make up the Scientific method.  They are:  AIM, HYPOTHESIS, APPARATUS, METHOD, RESULTS/DATA, DISCUSSION OF DATA, CONCLUSIONS AND EVALUATION.

In the above you need to write any report in the past tense and keep it impersonal.  You must indicate that you would like to repeat any experiment to make it more valid, your results must be in a neat table if that is what suits them, you MUST REFER BACK TO YOUR AIM/HYPOTHESIS  in your CONCLUSION and don’t forget the evaluation.



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