End-of-Year Revision


SCIENTIFIC SKILLS

Designing experiments;
Interpreting the results of experiments;
Constructing and interpreting graphs;
Reading scales

COMPOUNDS AND REACTIONS

Safety in the science (especially chemistry) laboratory;
Kinds of substances  - pure substances/mixtures, elements/compounds and examples of each;
Solutions (solute in solvent) may be dilute, concentrated or saturated;
Chemical reactions - indicated by....
a change in temperature;
appearance of a new substance;
disappearance of an original substance;
Chemical shorthand (symbols for common elements and simple compounds);
Photosynthesis and respiration as examples of biochemical reactions (reactants and products);

INVESTIGATING EARTH
Structure of Earth - core (inner and outer), mantle, crust;
Sedimentary rocks -
form from sediments; 
form underwater;
examples (sandstone, shale, limestone, mudstone);
Igneous rocks -
form from molten magma; 
two sub-groups -
plutonic rocks 
cool from molten state slowly (possibly hundreds of years);
cool deep inside Earth (Pluto - god of the underworld)
forming larger (visible to naked eye) crystals 
examples - granite, gabbro;
volcanic rocks
cool from molten state quickly (possibly days);
cool at or near the surface (eg. from volcanoes);
form small (hand lens needed) crystals;
examples - basalt, andesite, rhyolite; 
Metamorphic rocks - form when other rocks changed by heat (contact metamorphism) or pressure (regional metamorphism) but never from the molten state;
the rock cycle (including weathering, erosion, decomposition)










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